Politics in India takes place within the framework of a Constitutional republic, Parliamentary democratic , federal govt; in which the President of India is head of state and the Prime Minister of India is the head of government. Nominally executive power is exercised by the President and is independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Federal and state elections generally take place within a multi-party system, although this is not enshrined in law. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, the highest national court being the Supreme Court of India. India is the world’s largest democracy in terms of citizenry.
The economy of India is the tenth-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity(PPP). The country is one of the G-20 major economies and a member of BRICS. On a per-capita-income basis, India ranked 141st by nominal GDP and 130th by GDP (PPP) in 2012, according to the IMF. India is the 19th-largest exporter and the 10th-largest importer in the world. The economy slowed to around 5.0% for the 2012–13 fiscal year compared with 6.2% in the previous fiscal. On 28 August 2013 the Indian rupee hit an all time low of 68.80 against the US dollar. In order to control the fall in rupee, the government introduced capital controls on outward investment by both corporates and individuals. India’s GDP grew by 9.3% in 2010–11; thus, the growth rate has nearly halved in just three years. GDP growth rose marginally to 4.8% during the quarter through March 2013, from about 4.7% in the previous quarter. The government has forecast a growth rate of 6.1%-6.7% for the year 2013–14, whilst the RBI expects the same to be at 5.7%. Besides this, India suffered a very high fiscal deficit of US$ 88 billion (4.8% of GDP) in the year 2012–13. The Indian Government aims to cut the fiscal deficit to US$ 70 billion or 3.7% of GDP by 2013–14.
India became an independent democratic republic in 1947 and its constitution, which came into force on 26th November 1949, is the supreme law. India has a common law legal system whose infrastructure bears the influence of British colonial rule. The constitution is based on the Government of India Act 1935 passed by British Parliament. The Indian constitution lays out a federal Union of 28 States, 6 union territories and 1 national capital territory. The Union and States have separate executive and legislative branches, whereas the territories are ruled by the national government. Law generated by the Unionis superior to that of the States.
The nominal head of the Union executive is an elected President, but the Prime Minister, leader of the majority party and head of the Union Council of Ministers, is more politically powerful. India has a bicameral Parliament whose upper house is the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and whose lower house is the House of People (Lok Sabha). The State executive is headed by a Governor, and while most have a unicameral legislative body called the Legislative Assembly, some are bicameral with a Legislative Council as well.
Apart from the English influence, personal laws are frequently based on Hindu and Islamic law. Hindu law has been codified and Islamic law is based on authoritative commentaries and precedents. (The LawBod has works dealing with these great religious legal systems with shelf marks starting Ancient Hindu and Islamic).For more information, see the section on Religion & law.
There are a few activist groups in India including:
ANHAD (Act Now for Harmony and Democracy)
India Against Corruption
Jan Satyagraha 2012
Women’s League of Chinland