Societal culture-Determinants– According to Sriamesh there are four determinants of societal culture. “The first, technoeconomics, refers to the level of economic development of a society, which invariably influences the culture of each society. The second, social structure is indicative of the social institutions that define relationships among different members or groups of a society. The third cultural determinant, ideology, refers to the values, norms, worldviews, knowledge, philosophies and religious principles that members of a society espouse. The final determinant refers to the personality traits of individuals of a society based especially on the child-rearing practices of that society.”
India accounts for about 10% of all expenditure on research and development in Asia and the number of scientific publications grew by 45% over the past five years. However, according to India’s science and technology minister, Kapil Sibal, India is lagging in science and technology compared to developed countries. India has only 140 researchers per 1,000,000 population, compared to 4,651 in the United States. India invested US$3.7 billion in science and technology in 2002–2003. For comparison, China invested about four times more than India, while the United States invested approximately 75 times more than India on science and technology. Despite this, five Indian Institutes of Technology were listed among the top 10 science and technology schools in Asia by Asiaweek.
2. Social Structure
India’s caste system has four main classes (also called varnas) based originally on personality, profession, and birth. In descending order, the classes are as follows:
Brahmana (now more commonly spelled Brahmin): Consist of those engaged in scriptural education and teaching, essential for the continuation of knowledge.
- Kshatriya: Take on all forms of public service, including administration, maintenance of law and order, and defense.
- Vaishya: Engage in commercial activity as businessmen.
- Shudra: Work as semi-skilled and unskilled laborers.
The most obvious problem with this system was that under its rigidity, the lower castes were prevented from aspiring to climb higher, and, therefore, economic progress was restricted.
Castes still rarely intermarry and are definitely not changeable. In urban India, though, people of all castes meet socially or for business. Discriminating against anyone because of their caste for things like club memberships and so on is against the law.
Religion in India is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. India is the birthplace of four of the world’s major religions; namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism.Throughout India’s history, religion has been an important part of the country’s culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by the law and custom. A vast majority of Indians, (over 93%), associate themselves with a religion.
Historically, Indian children enjoy intense love and closeness to their mothers. While families traditionally value boys more than girls, in general, mothers have engaged in close physical contact with their children including breastfeeding on demand, carrying children even when they can walk, co-sleeping and baby massage. With the respect given to family elders, extended families have been the norm.
Large families, including grandparents, aunts and uncles, combine with close physical contact to indicate the importance of attachment between parents and children. Parents prefer not to isolate children through a lot of solitary play. The presence of many family members in some homes makes finding alone time difficult in any case.
Today’s Indian families continue much as they did in the past, with the notable move from extended to nuclear families in some regions. This can lead to lack of support or lack of stress, depending on the family’s views. While not having a parent or aunt close by to help with responsibilities can mean more work, it can also mean less unwanted advice and more personal space.